Hypertension. Causes, symptoms and treatment.

Hypertension is permanent or occasional elevation of blood pressure. It’s an insidious disease. High blood pressure often doesn’t have any symptoms, but it slowly affects the heart, brain, kidneys. The disease informs about its presence by headache, dizziness, tinnitus, short term heartache and rapid heartbeat. Also the following symptoms became possible: faintness, shortness of breath, rapid fatigability, unprovoked nose bleeding.

Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80 mmHg. Identification of hypertension is possible only by regular blood pressure measurement, because there can be just single jumps in pressure, for example, during physical activities, emotional experiences or after alcohol ingestion. It is important to know not only the blood pressure readings, but also how quick the blood pressure comes back to normal.

After age 40 the vasoconstriction happens, the vessel wall elasticity decreases, which contributes to hypertension. At a young age the increase in arterial blood pressure is possible on the background of diseases of endocrine glands, lungs and kidneys, as well as during the pregnancy period. The risk of hypertension increases if your immediate family members or you suffer from diabetes. Permanent neuropsychic overstrain, stresses and lack of sleep facilitate the hypertension development. Excessively salty and fatty food, smoking and alcohol abuse also raise the blood pressure. Overweight people and people with sedentary lifestyle often suffer from hypertension.

You should pay a close heed to the changes in the state of your organism, and it is recommended to measure the blood pressure at the first signs of the disease. If you noted a repeated rise of pressure, doctor’s appointment is plainly required for you, as the selection of preparations is strictly individual, and is performed on the basis of a complete diagnostics of your body.

There are some risk factors, which may cause the complications in the work of cardio-vascular system.

The following risk factors are emphasized:

1. Age. Men older than 55, and women older than 65 years.
2. The cholesterol content – total cholesterol above 6,5 mmol per liter.
3. Cardiovascular diseases in the patient’s relatives.
4. Diabetes.
5. Smoking.
6. Sedentary lifestyle.
7. Corpulence.

The risk factors are divided into two groups. The first group comprises the risk factors, which can be eliminated with doctor’s help or by your own efforts. These include diabetes, increased cholesterol, smoking, etc. The second group comprises age, genetic predisposition.

Long-lasting hypertension aggravates the cardiac performance, heartbeat increases, pulse quickens, the heart enlarges.

Besides hypertension, the increase of blood pressure may be caused by kidneys disease, malfunction of thyroid gland, structural heart defects, constriction of aorta (coarctation), etc.
Symptoms of Hypertension
Principal symptoms:

· headache;

Headache occurs more often in the occipital region, but also in temporal and parietal regions. The pain increases with mental and physical activity. Particularly severe pain accompanies the hypertensive crises.

· pain in the region of heart;

Constricting pain, long-lasting dull pain or sometimes short-term lancinating pain in the region of heart are possible in the people with hypertension.

· palpitation;

· tinnitus;

· seeing spots;

· dizziness.

Hypertensive crisis

Hypertensive crisis is a sudden short-term manifestation of hypertensive disease. The reason of hypertensive crisis is the interruption of arterial pressure regulation mechanisms, accompanied by an increase in arterial blood pressure and disorder of blood circulation in internal organs. It originates from the alteration of psychoemotional state, using a significant amount of salt in food, abrupt change of weather conditions. Hypertensive crises are often a result of the absence of hypertension due treatment. The danger of hypertensive crisis lies in the fact that it can exacerbate the existing heart and brain diseases.

Symptoms of hypertensive crisis:

· headache;
· precordialgia shooting up the arm and scapula;
· dizziness;
· faintness.

Complications of hypertensive crisis:

· myocardial infarction,
· acute cerebrovascular disorder,
· pulmonary edema,
· cerebral edema,
· lethal outcome.

Hypertensive crises are much more common in women.

Treatment of hypertension

The treatment of hypertension is mainly focused on normalization of blood pressure. The disease treatment is a complex one. One group of preparations is oriented to reduce the blood pressure. Vasodilating and diuretic preparations are also used. Sedative (obtundent) medical preparations are due in no small part to treatment. The selection of medication is strictly individual and will depend on the patient’s condition. The special diets focused on decrease of salt and liquid consumption are selected for people with hypertension. Alcohol is forbidden for people with hypertension disease as well.

Leeches are also used for hypertension treatment – hirudotherapy.

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